In finance equity investment is a very important concept. An equity investment is a type of investment that is invested by individuals or firms. It involves the buying and selling of stock. It is directed by regular trading exchange. In equity investment there is a huge possibility to face greater loss as well as greater profit. To be successful in equity investment it requires a substantially higher level of research and monitoring investment.
Equity investment is a long time investment. The investors cannot expect their desired goals within a short time. Therefore it is a long time process of developing wealth. The equity investment can also be fund for gaining ownership in a private company.
Some advantages of equity investment are following:
- In equity investment there is no interest charged on the determined fund.
- Investor can utilize their knowledge and skill directly in equity investment.
- There is a huge possibility for the investors to gain a greater profit in return.
- There is a loss control policy in equity in equity investment.
- It is not important to keep up with costs of servicing bank loans or debt finance in equity investment.
Some of the disadvantages of equity investment are following:
- Higher risk of loss is a very significant disadvantage of equity investment.
- Financing in equity investment is demanding, costly which creates problems to the investors.
- Decision taking right becomes shared to several bodies who are investing.
Whatever, there are both advantage and disadvantage in equity investment but the advantages attracts the investors most. It assures securities for the investors in their mutual fund and joint venture. So, if anyone wants to invest his capital focusing on the above facts then he will find equity investment as one of the best options.
Mutual fund is a very dazzling and attractive domain in market investment for a developing country like India. The aspect of mutual fund has become worthy strategy in the present time (In India, the domain started from 1963). People appreciate this for the sake of the betterment of their investment in market. They found many advantages incorporating simplicity, diversity, versatility and easy accessibility. In India, lack of financial literacy is a remarkable problem among the investors. The strategy of mutual fund comes with a solution for this problem.
Most of the people of India are house centered and feel comfortable to deposit their money in a savings account of any bank rather than investing them in market for security reason. Mutual fund is like a pool for the investors where investors get a secured environment to invest their capital in market.
There are three remarkable features of mutual fund strategy that ensures the security to the investors for their investment:
- Equity fund ensures every individual investor an equal right. The limit of capital is not a crucial fact here. If there is a profit or a loss then everyone will bear the result fairly.
- Fixed income fund brings a successive income for the investors that increases interest among the people in this domain.
- Independent money market fund preserves the freedom of an investor.
A survey shows that in India, the people above 30 are more interested in mutual fund marketing than the youth. But expectedly this proportion is increasing day by day. Some experts says that the assets under mutual fund (AUM) are expected to touch Rs 20 lakh crore sooner as it was Rs 16.93 lakh crore at the end of 2016.
The above discussion shows the glorious and possible development associating mutual fund marketing in India which motivates the investors to invest their capital in market.
Debt investment refers to the investment that is done through the purchase of bonds or debentures, instead of through the purchase of common stocks. In debt investment, a firm accumulates fund by selling bonds or bills. Debt investment confirms a lower risk to the investors but it does not offer a huge return on an equity investment.
Date investment associates the following facts:
- Savings Accounts
- Certificates of Deposit
- Corporate Bonds
- Government Bonds
- Municipal Bonds
Some of the advantages in debt investment are following:
- Debt investment does not affect the owner’s ownership interest in the company.
- Short time profit can be expected in Debt investment.
- Debt investment decreases investment risks.
- This is a great financial growth strategy.
Some of the disadvantages in debt investment are following:
- Debt investment does not offer a higher profit rate like an equity investment.
- It is a borrowing against future earnings.
- In debt investment, repayment is a must.
- Bad impact on credit rating is a remarkable disadvantage of debt investment.
- Fixed interest cost.
- The larger a company’s debt-equity ratio, the more risky the company is considered by lenders and investors.
Focusing on the above factors we come to understand that debt investment has both advantages and disadvantages. But sometimes debt investment shows much than disadvantages by playing very important role in capital accumulation ant investment. Though it has to bear a fixed amount of interest but it also reduces risks in investment.
Corporate finance is a financial concept that deals with the financial activities of a corporation. Under this strategy the managers of corporations take actions to increase the value of the firm to the shareholders. The main aim of corporate finance is to increase shareholders value. Corporate finance strategy enables the managers to balance capital funding. It maximizes shareholders value through long term and short term financial planning. Everything associated with capital investment to investment banking is the matter of discussion under corporate finance strategy.
Some objectives of corporate finance strategy are following:
- Capital Investment Decision is one of the crucial features of corporate finance strategy. It mainly deals with the accumulation of capital and its utilization towards investment. Here the investment is importantly concerned with capital budgeting and capital expenditures.
- Financing Decision is another important concern of corporate finance. This aspect deals with financial management which ensures the proper utilization of finance.
- Liquidity Decision is a very significant concern of corporate finance. It ensures the enough liquidity to carry out active operations of a corporation. It is also concerned with the current assets and liabilities of a corporation. Moreover, it ensures a corporation with sufficient amount of liquid assets.
- Corporate Value Maximization is a very important goal of corporate finance strategy. The maximization of corporate value is possible through proper short term and long term planning under corporate finance strategy.
Moreover, it is clear that corporate finance strategy is one of the important sectors of finance domain. It increases the value of a company as well as the value of sharegolders. Every small or big organization needs to apply this strategy to survive and for better financial growth development of a corporation.
In finance, the term disinvestment means to the withdrawal of invested money by selling the assets or major production tool. Disinvestment reduces the unexpected loss of a company, a business initiative or even government. When an investor observes that their investments do not fetch their desired profit and it will jog them toward loss in future then they intends to make disinvestment. Sometimes, an investor attempts to make disinvestment for the sake of funding elsewhere expecting more profit. Disinvestment is often done from economic, political or social aspect.
Disinvestment activity of the government has become a crucial topic of India. The Government can sell its enterprises or disinvest a part of its equity capital held by it to the private sector companies or in the open market.
There are many reasons behind the disinvestment made by the government of India:
- The government wants to develop resources to reduce budget shortage.
- The government requires resources to make investment in infrastructure, social sectors such as education, public health and poverty alleviation attempt.
- The government leads to disinvest to avoid financial loss: as it increases the efficiency in utilization of capital.
- Another important use of disinvestment of public enterprises is the resources raised from them can be used to pay off past debts of the government and thereby reducing the interest burden of the government
Disinvestment of public asset to private sector is profitable because this will enable these enterprises to attract private foreign investment to develop joint ventures. The government disinvested around two lakh crore of PSU considering following significance:
- To solve fiscal problem
- To develop economic growth
- To develop social strategy
- Reducing government rate
- To develop private sector enterprise
- To encourage investment
Moreover, disinvestment policy taken by Indian government develops private sector enterprise and also ensures a handsome profit for the government.
Foreign banks were allowed to open subsidiaries in India from year 2002 onwards, when Reserve Bank of India opened up the gates for them. This was a happy step for the Indian economy especially after our nation’s push the previous decade, when Manmohan Singh led team had introduced drastic reforms that had opened our economy for foreign investors in year 1991. These international banks have played a very important role in the priority sectors, and have pushed the Indian private and governmental banks as well to improve their standards of service in order to survive in this ever demanding market. The services provided by these banks have been extremely impressive and these banks have brought in a technological revolution in how our banking sector works. Innovation in banking is a game changer now, thanks to these foreign banks.
The last 2 decades have witnessed cut throat competition in Indian banking sector thanks to the introduction of foreign banks in our country. The healthy and strong competition has forced Indian banks to come up with new and unique propositions that customers haven’t heard before. Banks are majorly considered a part of the service industry, and the main objective of all the banks is to provide a better service to a large number of customers and look after their financial requirements. Customer satisfaction is now the biggest priority for all banks in India, be it governmental, private or foreign banks.
Overall, the introduction of foreign banks has been a great blessing for the Indian banking sector and the Indian economy at large.